This part commences with the Yathrib period, during which the building of the Prophet's (PBUH) mosque took place. Muhammad (PBUH) marries Aisha, the daughter of Abu Baler and further revelations are announced. The first battles for the preservation of Islam are briefly dealt with, whilst the personal life of the Prophet (PBUH) is followed in more detail. The controversy surrounding the allegations of infidelity against Aisha is also dealt with.
Muhammad (PBUH) marries Aisha
Once Muhammad's (PBUH) life returned to normal in Madina
hemarried Aisha, the daughter of Abu Bakr, who was just entering womanhood. As she was still young, Aisha enjoyed playing games and amusing herself in other ways. Aisha lived in a house next to the mosque which the Prophet (PBUH) built. They had a very happy marriage, Aisha finding security and compassion, whilst the Prophet (PBUH) found in her a source of relaxation and friendship.
Call of the first Adhan
At times of prayer, the people of Madina gathered around the Prophet (PBUH) and thereafter performed prayers at the mosque. Muhammad (PBUH) thought of appropriate ways by which the Muslim population could be called to prayer. After much deliberation and consultation, the Prophet (PBUH) instructed Abdullah ibn Zayd ibn Tha'labah to dictate the. call for prayer (adhan), but that Bilal should deliver the call as he had a more beautiful voice. In this way the adhan became
established as the manner to call Muslims to prayer.
Muhammad (PBUH) as kind, yet firm
The Prophet (PBUH) was well known for his kindness to people and also animals. He was never cruel to animals and would always assist and help stray animals. However, his kindness should not be viewed as an indication of weakness. Where the situation required, especially as far as the religion of Islam was concerned, or where he had to act in a just manner, he could be firm to the point almost of being forceful. He was of the view that kindness is only true kindness when it was accompanied by justice. In this regard Surah 2, verse 194 states as follows: "Whoever commits an aggression against you, return to him his aggression in like manner."
Foundation of the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH)
It was during this early period of the Prophet's (PBUH) life in Madina that he laid the foundation for the Sunnah as part of the Shari'ah of Islam. On being asked by Ali ibn Abu Talib what the foundation was on which he was building the Islamic community, the Prophet (PBUH) answered: "Wisdom is my capital, reason the force of my religion, love MY foundation, longing my vehicle, the remembrance of God my constant pleasure, trust my treasure, mourning my companion, knowledge my arm, patience my robe, contentment my booty, poverty my pride, asceticism my profession, conviction my strength, truthfulness my intercessor, obedience my argument, holy war my ethics, prayer my Supreme pleasure.."
Longing for their family and friends in Makka
A few months after settling in Madina, the Muslims began to long for their family and friends they left behind in Makka. Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions planned raids on Makka during which they could free their friends and family still residing in Makka. The Prophet's (PBUH) uncle, Hamza, led the first raid. Other raids were led by Ubaydah ibn al Harith and Sa'd ibn Abu Waqqas. About a year after his arrival in Madina, Muhammad (PBUH) also led a raid to Makka. However, on none of these occasions did any fighting take place, as their main intention was to free their compatriots and not to make war.
During this period the following injunction from Allah was revealed: "There is no compulsion in religion - the truth is now distinct from error". "Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit any aggression. God does not love the aggressor." (Surah 2, verses 190 and 256).
The great battle of Badr
This battle constituted one of the turning points in the ongoing wars between the Muslims and the Quraish. The Muslims mobilized their forces to capture a caravan belonging to the Quraish, which was on route to al Sham. When Abu Sufyan got word of Muhammad's (PBUH) intention to intercept and attack the caravan, he prepared the Quraish to dispel the attack. Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan stood at the vanguard of the Quraish during this battle.
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Forging strong bonds with his companions
As the Prophet (PBUH) did in the case of forging stronger bonds with his closest friend Abu Bakr, by marrying his daughter, the Prophet married Hafsah, the daughter of Umar ibn al Khattab. Hafsah was a widow, her husband Khunays, a Muslim convert having died a few months earlier. In this same context Ali married Fatimah, daughter of the Prophet (PBUH) (although in the case of Ali it was not necessary as since a child Ali loved the Prophet (PBUH) more than he loved anyone else). When Uthman's wife Ruqayyah (also a daughter of the Prophet (PBUH)) passed away, Uthman married another of the Prophet's (PBUH) daughters, Umm Kulthum. In this way the bonds of kinship between the Prophet (PBUH), Abu Bakr, Ali, Umar and Uthman was strengthened.
Wives of the Prophet (PBUH)
In addition to Aisha, the Prophet (PBUH) was also married to Zaynub, the daughter of Khuzaymah, Umm Salamah, daughter of Umayyah ibn al Mughira, and Laynub, the daughter of Jahsh. Last-mentioned was divorced from the Prophet's (PBUH) adopted son Zayd ibn I Harith. Shortly after the death of Khadija the Prophet (PBUH) married Sawdah, the daughter of Zam'ah. However, each marriage of the Prophet had its own significance and was not borne of lust for women. It should be remember that the Prophet (PBUH) was 25 years old when he married Khadija, a marriage that lasted 28 years. During his marriage to Khadija Muhammad (PBUH) had no other wife. It was only after his 50th birthday,and after the death of Khadija that the Prophet (PBUH) married other women. Amongst his other wives were Safflyah, Maymunah and Juwayriyyah.It was during the period of his marriage to Zaynub that the following verses were revealed: "Marry such women as seem becoming to you, two, three or four. But if you fear that you may not be just, then marry only one, or your slaves." (.Surah 4, verse 3). "You will not be able to do justice to more than one wife. however much you may try. And if you must marry another wife, do not incline excessively to one and leave the other like a thing suspended." (Surah 4, verse 129).
Untruthful accusations against Aisha
Zaynub's sister Hamnah was not happy that Aisha was the preferred wife of the Prophet (PBUH), and preferred this role for her sister. Hamnah started a rumour that Aisha had an affair with Safwan, who was a young and handsome man. When the rumour reached Aisha she was deeply hurt as she was a loving and faithful wife to the Prophet (PBUH). Aisha cried bitterly and was depressed for many days, but she had no fear in her heart, as she knew she was innocent. When the Prophet (PBUH) consulted Aisha on the allegations she denied it strenuously. Immediately thereafter the Prophet (PBUH) received a revelation from Allah to the effect that she was innocent. Both the Prophet (PBUH) and Aisha rejoiced at the fact that she was cleared of suspicion. After this incident the following verse was revealed: "Those who falsely accuse chaste women of adultery and do not bring four witnesses to this effect shall be flogged with eighty stripes and their witness shall never be admitted as evidence in any matter. Those are the decadent, the immoral." (Surah 24, verse 4).
Muhammad goes on Umrah
As a result of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Muslims were free to visit Makka in a peaceful manner. About a year after the. conclusion of this Treaty, the Prophet (PBUH) and over 2000 of his followers entered Makka for the purpose of performing Umrah. The Muslims were only allowed to carry their sword (in a sheathed manner) whilst on Umrah. As Muhammad (PBUH) did not fully trust the Quraish, he took the precaution of having 100 Muslim soldiers on the outskirts in the event of the Muslims being attacked. However, the performance of this Umrah went off peacefully as the Quraish had evacuated all their people from Makka.
In the next part, which is the final part in this series, we shall examine. the attempt by the Muslims to re-take Makka from the Quraish, the Prophet's (PBUH) last sermon and other important events in the Prophet's (PBUH) life.